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Safeguarding Children Policy


Safeguarding and promoting the welfare of children

Combat 2 Coffee, hereinafter referred to as the Organisation, recognises that, under the Children Act 1989 and 2004, it has a duty and responsibility for making arrangements to ensure all its functions are fulfilled in relation to safeguarding and promoting the welfare of children/young people in their care – this includes all services directly provided and commissioned by the local authority. 

A child is anyone up until their 18th birthday.

“Safeguarding and promoting the welfare of children” is defined in Working Together to Safeguard Children 2015 as:

  • Protecting children from maltreatment
  • Preventing impairment of children’s health and development
  • Ensuring that children grow up in circumstances consistent with the provision of safe and effective care
  • Acting to enable all children to have the best outcomes

Persons affected

  • All staff, paid and unpaid, including volunteers
  • All service users
  • All visitors and contractors

Safeguarding policy

The Organisation is committed to the importance of safeguarding and promoting the welfare of children. It has:

  • A clear line of accountability for the commissioning and/or provision of services designed to safeguard and promote the welfare of children
  • A senior board level lead to take leadership responsibility for the Organisation’s safeguarding arrangements
  • A culture of listening to children and taking account of their wishes and feelings, both in individual decisions and the development of services
  • Clear whistleblowing procedures which reflect the principles in Sir Robert Francis’s Freedom to Speak Up review and are suitably referenced in staff training and codes of conduct, and a culture that enables issues about safeguarding and promoting the welfare of children to be addressed
  • Arrangements which set out clearly the processes for sharing information procedures with other professionals and with the Local Safeguarding Children Board (LSCB)
  • A designated professional lead for safeguarding at the Organisation. Their role is to support other professionals in their agencies to recognise the needs of children, including rescue from possible abuse or neglect. Designated professional roles should always be explicitly defined in job descriptions. Safeguarding leads should be given sufficient time, funding, supervision and support to fulfil their child welfare and safeguarding responsibilities effectively
  • Safe recruitment practices for individuals that the Organisation will permit to work regularly with children, including policies on when to obtain a DBS check
  • Appropriate supervision and support for staff, including undertaking safeguarding training
  • Ensuring that staff are competent to carry out their responsibilities for safeguarding and promoting the welfare of children and creating an environment where staff feel able to raise concerns and feel supported in their safeguarding role
  • Staff are given a mandatory induction, which includes familiarisation with safeguarding responsibilities and procedures to be followed if anyone has any concerns about a child’s safety or welfare
  • All staff should have regular reviews of their own practice to ensure they improve over time in their work with children, young people and families
  • Clear policies in line with those from the LSCB for dealing with allegations against people who work with children. Such policies should make a clear distinction between an allegation, a concern about the quality of care or practice or a complaint. An allegation may relate to a person who works with children who has:
    • Behaved in a way that has harmed a child, or may have harmed a child;
    • Possibly committed a criminal offence against or related to a child; or
    • Behaved towards a child or children in a way that indicates they may pose a risk of harm to children.

The organisation clearly promotes the following messages that;

  • Safeguarding is everyone’s responsibility: for services to be effective each professional and organisation should play their full part; and
  • A child-centred approach: for services to be effective they should be based on a clear understanding of the needs and views of children.

The Organisation will ensure that all staff, volunteers, trustees and contractors understand;

  • What they need to do, and what they can expect of one another, to safeguard children
  • Core legal requirements, making it clear what individuals and the Organisation must do to keep children safe. In doing so, the Organisation is clear that effective safeguarding increases where the following happens
  • The child’s needs are treated as paramount, and the needs and wishes of each child, be they a baby or infant, or an older child, should be put first, so that every child receives the support they need before a problem escalates
  • That all staff who come into contact with children and families are alert to their needs and any risks of harm that individual abusers, or potential abusers, may pose to children
  • The requirement to share appropriate information in a timely way and can discuss any concerns about an individual child with colleagues and local authority children’s social care
  • The necessity to use their expert judgement to put the child’s needs at the heart of the safeguarding system so that the right solution can be found for each individual child
  • The necessity to contribute to whatever actions are needed to safeguard and promote a child’s welfare and take part in regularly reviewing the outcomes for the child against specific plans and outcomes

Selection of Staff

  • All applicants will complete an application form
  • Short listed applicants will be asked to attend interview
  • Short listed applicants will be asked to provide references, and these will always be taken up prior to confirmation of an appointment
  • Where relevant to the post, the successful applicant will be asked to agree to Disclosure and Barring Service (DBS) disclosure. Disclosures will be requested prior to the applicant taking up post


  • All volunteers will fill out an application form
  • All volunteers will be interviewed
  • Volunteers will be requested to supply the name and addresses of two referees; these will be taken up before a volunteer is registered
  • Before a volunteer works with a vulnerable adult DBS disclosure will be requested


  • The successful applicant will receive induction training, which will give an overview of the organisation and ensure they know its purpose, values, services and structure
  • Relevant training and support will be provided on an ongoing basis, and will cover information about their role, and opportunities for practicing skills needed for the work
  • Training on specific areas such as health & safety procedures, identifying and reporting abuse, and confidentiality will be given as a priority to new staff and volunteers, and will be regularly reviewed


  • All staff and volunteers will have a designated line manager who will provide regular feedback and support

The Organisation will ensure that all staff and volunteers involved in recruitment, training and supervision, are aware of this policy and have received appropriate training and support to ensure its full implementation.

The Organisation’s reporting procedure:

  • Report your concerns to your Designated Safeguarding Officer
  • Document any disclosure or concern as soon as you can, keeping it factual and free from your opinion or judgement
  • Ensure you take note of who you reported it to and the actions they will be taking and by when

In every case where an allegation is made, or someone has concerns, a record should be made. DO NOT INVESTIGATE. Details must include, as far as practical:

  • Name of child or young person
  • Age
  • Home Address (if known)
  • Date of Birth (if known)
  • Name/s and Address of parent/s or person/s with responsibility
  • Telephone numbers if available
  • Is the person making the report expressing their own concerns, or passing on those of somebody else? If so, record details
  • What has prompted the concerns?
  • Include dates and times of any specific incidents
  • Has the child or young person been spoken to? If so, what was said?
  • Has anybody been alleged to be the abuser? If so, record details
  • Who has this been passed on to, in order that appropriate action is taken? E.g. school, designated officer, social services etc.
  • Has anyone else been consulted? If so, record details
  • Follow the flow chart of referral if you do not wish to report to the children’s services but one that the Manager will follow once you have alerted them to your concerns


Name: Nigel Seaman                                Contact Number:    07429439766

Combat 2 Coffee, Non-Executive Director

Name: Paul Botterill                                  Contact Number:    07809622170

Revision history

This policy and related guidance will be monitored by the Chair of Trustees/Chief Executive on a regular basis for compliance and will be reviewed at least annually.

Date policy approved or amendedAmendmentsSigned

Appendix 1

Definitions and signs of child abuse

Child abuse happens when a person – adult or child – harms a child. It can be physical, sexual or emotional, but can also involve a lack of love, care and attention. Neglect can be just as damaging to a child as physical or sexual abuse. Children may be abused by:

  • Family members
  • Friends
  • People working or volunteering in organisational or community settings
  • People they know
  • Or, much less commonly, by strangers

Children suffering abuse often experience more than 1 type of abuse. The abuse usually happens over a period time, rather than being a single, isolated incident. Increasingly, abuse can happen online.

General signs of abuse

Children who suffer abuse may be afraid to tell anybody about the abuse. They may struggle with feelings of guilt, shame or confusion – particularly if the abuser is a parent, caregiver or other close family member or friend. Many of the signs that a child is being abused are the same regardless of the type of abuse. Anyone working with children or young people needs to be vigilant to the signs listed below.

  • Regular flinching in response to sudden but harmless actions, for example someone Raising a hand quickly
  • Showing an inexplicable fear of particular places or making excuses to avoid particular people
  • Knowledge of ‘adult issues’ for example alcohol, drugs and/or sexual behaviour which is inappropriate for their age or stage of development
  • Angry outbursts or behaving aggressively towards other children, adults, animals or toys
  • Becoming withdrawn or appearing anxious, clingy or depressed
  • Self-harming or thoughts about suicide
  • Changes in eating habits or developing eating disorders
  • Regularly experiencing nightmares or sleep problems
  • Regularly wetting the bed or soiling their clothes
  • In older children, risky behaviour such as substance misuse or criminal activity
  • Running away or regularly going missing from home or care
  • Not receiving adequate medical attention after injuries.

These signs do not necessarily mean that a child is being abused. There may well be other reasons for changes in a child’s behaviour such as a bereavement or relationship problems between parents/carers. In assessing whether signs are related to abuse or not, they need to be considered in the context of the child’s development and situation.

Physical abuse

Physical abuse happens when a child is deliberately hurt, causing injuries such as cuts, bruises, burns and broken bones. It can involve hitting, kicking, shaking, throwing, poisoning, burning or suffocating. It’s also physical abuse if a parent or carer makes up or causes the symptoms of illness in children. For example, they may give them medicine they don’t need, making them unwell. This is known as fabricated or induced illness (FII).

Spotting the signs of physical abuse

 All children have trips, falls and accidents which may cause cuts, bumps and bruises. These injuries tend to affect bony areas of their body such as elbows, knees and shins and are not usually a cause for concern. Injuries that are more likely to indicate physical abuse include:


  • Bruises on babies who are not yet crawling or walking
  • Bruises on the cheeks, ears, palms, arms and feet • bruises on the back, buttocks, tummy, hips and backs of legs
  • Multiple bruises in clusters, usually on the upper arms or outer thighs
  • Bruising which looks like it has been caused by fingers, a hand or an object, like a belt or shoe
  • Large oval-shaped bite marks.

Burns or scalds

  • Any burns which have a clear shape of an object, for example cigarette burns
  • Burns to the backs of hands, feet, legs, genitals or buttocks. Other signs of physical abuse include multiple injuries (such as bruising, fractures) inflicted at different times.

If a child is frequently injured, and if the bruises or injuries are unexplained or the explanation doesn’t match the injury, this should be investigated. It’s also concerning if there is a delay in seeking medical help for a child who has been injured.


Neglect is persistently failing to meet a child’s basic physical and/or psychological needs usually resulting in serious damage to their health and development. Neglect may involve a parent’s or carer’s failure to:

  • Provide adequate food, clothing or shelter
  • Supervise a child (including leaving them with unsuitable carers) or keep them safe from harm or danger
  • Make sure the child receives appropriate health and/or dental care
  • Make sure the child receives a suitable education 
  • Meet the child’s basic emotional needs – parents may ignore their children when they are distressed or even when they are happy or excited. This is known as emotional neglect.

Neglect is the most common type of child abuse. It often happens at the same time as other types of abuse.

Spotting the signs of neglect

Neglect can be difficult to identify. Isolated signs may not mean that a child is suffering neglect, but multiple and persistent signs over time could indicate a serious problem. Some of these signs include:

  • Children who appear hungry – they may come to school without lunch money or even try to steal food
  • Children who appear dirty or smelly and whose clothes are unwashed or inadequate for the weather conditions
  • Children who are left alone or unsupervised
  • Children who fail to thrive or who have untreated injuries, health or dental problems
  • Children with poor language, communication or social skills for their stage of development
  • Children who live in an unsuitable home environment, for example the house is very dirty and unsafe, perhaps with evidence of substance misuse or violence
  • Children who have taken on the role of carer for other family members

Sexual abuse

Sexual abuse is forcing or enticing a child to take part in sexual activities. It doesn’t necessarily involve violence and the child may not be aware that what is happening is abuse. Child sexual abuse can involve contact abuse and/or non-contact abuse. Contact abuse happens when the abuser makes physical contact with the child. It includes:

  • Sexual touching of any part of the body whether the child is wearing clothes or not
  • Rape or penetration by putting an object or body part inside a child’s mouth, vagina or anus
  • Forcing or encouraging a child to take part in sexual activity • making a child take their clothes off, touch someone else’s genitals or masturbate.

Non-contact abuse involves non-touching activities. It can happen online or in person and includes:

  • Encouraging a child to watch or hear sexual acts
  • Not taking proper measures to prevent a child being exposed to sexual activities by others
  • Showing pornography to a child
  • Making, viewing or distributing child abuse images
  • Allowing someone else to make, view or distribute child abuse images.

Online sexual abuse includes:

  • Persuading or forcing a child to send or post sexually explicit images of themselves, this is sometimes referred to as sexting
  • Persuading or forcing a child to take part in sexual activities via a webcam or smartphone
  • Having sexual conversations with a child by text or online
  • Meeting a child following online sexual grooming with the intent of abusing them.

Abusers may threaten to send sexually explicit images, video or copies of sexual conversations to the young person’s friends and family unless they take part in other sexual activity. Images or videos may continue to be shared long after the abuse has stopped. Abusers will often try to build an emotional connection with a child in order to gain their trust for the purposes of sexual abuse. This is known as grooming.

Spotting the signs of sexual abuse

There may be physical signs that a child has suffered sexual abuse. These include:

  • Anal or vaginal soreness or itching
  • Bruising or bleeding near the genital area
  • Discomfort when walking or sitting down
  • An unusual discharge
  • Sexually transmitted infections (STI)
  • Pregnancy

Changes in the child’s mood or behaviour may also cause concern. They may want to avoid spending time with specific people. In particular, the child may show sexual behaviour that is inappropriate for their age. For example:

  • They could use sexual language or know things about sex that you wouldn’t expect them to
  • A child might become sexually active at a young age
  • They might be promiscuous

Child sexual exploitation

Sexual exploitation (CSE) is a type of sexual abuse. Young people in exploitative situations and relationships receive things such as gifts, money, drugs, alcohol, status or affection in exchange for taking part in sexual activities.

Young people may be tricked into believing they’re in a loving, consensual relationship. They often trust their abuser and don’t understand that they’re being abused. They may depend on their abuser or be too scared to tell anyone what’s happening. They might be invited to parties and given drugs and alcohol before being sexually exploited. They can also be groomed and exploited online.

Some children and young people are trafficked into or within the UK for the purpose of sexual exploitation. Sexual exploitation can also happen to young people in gangs (Berelowitz et al, 2013).

Child sexual exploitation can involve violent, humiliating and degrading sexual assaults and involve multiple perpetrators.

Spotting the signs of child sexual exploitation

Sexual exploitation can be very difficult to identify. Warning signs can easily be mistaken for ‘normal’ teenage behaviour. Young people who are being sexually exploited may:

  • Go missing from home, care or education
  • Be involved in abusive relationships, appearing intimidated and fearful of certain people or situations
  • Hang out with groups of older people, or anti-social groups, or with other vulnerable peers
  • Get involved in gangs, gang fights, gang membership
  • Have older boyfriends or girlfriends
  • spend time at places of concern, such as hotels or known brothels
  • Not know where they are, because they have been moved around the country
  • Be involved in petty crime such as shoplifting
  • Have access to drugs and alcohol
  • Have new things such as clothes and mobile phones which they can’t or won’t explain
  • Have unexplained physical injuries

Harmful sexual behaviour

Children and young people who develop harmful sexual behaviour (HSB) harm themselves and others. HSB can include:

  • Using sexually explicit words and phrases
  • Inappropriate touching
  • Using sexual violence or threats
  • Full penetrative sex with other children or adults.

Sexual behaviour between children is also considered harmful if 1 of the children is much older – particularly if there is more than 2 years’ difference in age or if 1 of the children is pre-pubescent and the other isn’t (Davies, 2012). However, a younger child can abuse an older child, particularly if they have power over them – for example, if the older child is disabled (Rich, 2011).

Spotting the signs of harmful sexual behaviour

It’s normal for children to show signs of sexual behaviour at each stage in their development. Children also develop at different rates and some may be slightly more or less advanced than other children in their age group. Behaviours which might be concerning depend on the child’s age and the situation. If you’re unsure whether a child’s sexual behaviour is healthy, Brook provide a helpful, easy-to-use Traffic Light Tool. The traffic light system is used to describe healthy (green) sexual behaviours, potentially unhealthy (amber) sexual behaviours and unhealthy (red) sexual behaviours.

Emotional abuse

Emotional abuse is persistent, and, over time, it severely damages a child’s emotional health and development. It involves:

  • Humiliating, putting down or constantly criticising a child
  • Shouting at or threatening a child or calling them names
  • Mocking a child or making them perform degrading acts
  • Constantly blaming or scapegoating a child for things which are not their fault
  • Trying to control a child’s life and not recognising their individuality
  • Not allowing them to have friends or develop socially
  • Pushing a child too hard or not recognising their limitations
  • Manipulating a child
  • Exposing a child to distressing events or interactions such as drug taking, heavy drinking or domestic abuse
  • Persistently ignoring them
  • Being cold and emotionally unavailable during interactions with a child
  • Never saying anything kind, positive or encouraging to a child and failing to praise their achievements and successes

Spotting the signs of emotional abuse

There aren’t usually any obvious physical signs of emotional abuse, but you may spot signs in a child’s actions or emotions. It’s important to remember that some children are naturally quiet and self-contained whilst others are more open and affectionate. Mood swings and challenging behaviour are also a normal part of growing up for teenagers and children going through puberty. Be alert to behaviours which appear to be out of character for the individual child or are particularly unusual for their stage of development. Babies and pre-school children who are being emotionally abused may:

  • Be overly affectionate towards strangers or people they haven’t known for very long
  • Not appear to have a close relationship with their parent, for example when being taken to or collected from nursery
  • Lack confidence or become wary or anxious
  • Be unable to play be aggressive or nasty towards other children and animals.

Older children may:

  • Use language, act in a way or know about things that you wouldn’t expect for their age
  • Struggle to control strong emotions or have extreme outbursts
  • Seem isolated from their parents
  • Lack social skills or have few, if any, friends
  • Fear making mistakes
  • Fear their parent being approached regarding their behaviour
  • Self-harm

Domestic abuse

Domestic abuse is any type of controlling, bullying, threatening or violent behaviour between people who are or were in an intimate relationship. There are many different types of abusive behaviours that can occur within intimate relationships, including emotional, sexual, financial, psychological and physical abuse. Domestic abuse can be underpinned by an on-going pattern of psychologically abusive behaviour (coercive control) that is used by 1 partner to control or intimidate the other partner.

In situations of domestic abuse, both males and females can be abused or be abusers. Domestic abuse can happen in any relationship regardless of age, sexuality, gender identity, race or religious identity. Research by the NSPCC has indicated that many young people experience domestic abuse in their own intimate relationships (Barter, 2009). The UK’s cross-government definition of domestic abuse also covers relationships between young people aged 16 and 17 (Home Office, 2013).

Children’s exposure to domestic abuse between parents and carers is child abuse. Children can be directly involved in incidents of domestic abuse or they may be harmed by seeing or hearing abuse happening. The developmental and behavioural impact of witnessing domestic abuse is similar to experiencing direct abuse. Children in homes where there is domestic abuse are also at risk of other types of abuse or neglect.

Spotting the signs of domestic abuse

It can be difficult to tell if domestic abuse is happening, because it usually takes place in the family home and abusers can act very differently when other people are around. Children who witness domestic abuse may:

  • Become aggressive
  • Display anti-social behaviour
  • Suffer from depression or anxiety
  • Not do as well at school – due to difficulties at home or disruption of moving to and from refuges

Bullying and cyberbullying

Bullying is behaviour that hurts someone else. It usually happens over a lengthy period of time and can harm a child both physically and emotionally. Bullying includes:

  • Verbal abuse, such as name calling
  • Non-verbal abuse, such as hand signs or glaring
  • Emotional abuse, such as threatening, intimidating or humiliating someone
  • Exclusion, such as ignoring or isolating someone
  • Undermining, by constant criticism or spreading rumours
  • Controlling or manipulating someone
  • Racial, sexual or homophobic bullying
  • Physical assaults, such as hitting and pushing
  • Making silent, hoax or abusive calls.

Bullying can happen anywhere – at school, at home or online. When bullying happens online it can involve social networks, games and mobile devices. Online bullying can also be known as cyberbullying.

Cyberbullying includes:

  • Sending threatening or abusive text messages
  • Creating and sharing embarrassing images or videos
  • ‘Trolling’ – sending menacing or upsetting messages on social networks, chat rooms or online games
  • Excluding children from online games, activities or friendship groups
  • Setting up hate sites or groups about a particular child
  • Encouraging young people to self-harm
  • Voting for or against someone in an abusive poll
  • Creating fake accounts, hijacking or stealing online identities to embarrass a young person or cause trouble using their name

Spotting the signs of bullying and cyberbullying

It can be hard to know whether or not a child is being bullied. They might not tell anyone because they’re scared the bullying will get worse. They might also think that the bullying is their fault. No one sign indicates for certain that a child’s being bullied, but you should look out for:

  • Belongings getting ‘lost’ or damaged
  • Physical injuries such as unexplained bruises
  • Being afraid to go to school, being mysteriously ‘ill’ each morning, or skipping school
  • Not doing as well at school
  • Asking for, or stealing, money (to give to a bully)
  • Being nervous, losing confidence or becoming distressed and withdrawn
  • Problems with eating or sleeping
  • Bullying others

Child trafficking

Child trafficking is child abuse. It involves recruiting and moving children who are then exploited. Many children are trafficked into the UK from overseas, but children can also be trafficked from one part of the UK to another. Children are trafficked for:

  • Child sexual exploitation
  • Benefit fraud
  • Forced marriage
  • Domestic servitude such as cleaning, childcare, cooking
  • Forced labour in factories or agriculture
  • Criminal exploitation such as cannabis cultivation, pickpocketing, begging, transporting, drugs, selling pirated DVDs and bag theft

Children who are trafficked experience many forms of abuse and neglect. Physical, sexual and emotional abuse is often used to control them and they’re also likely to suffer physical and emotional neglect.

Child trafficking can require a network of organised criminals who recruit, transport and exploit children and young people. Some people in the network might not be directly involved in trafficking a child but play a part in other ways, such as falsifying documents, bribery, owning or renting premises or money laundering (Europol, 2011).

Child trafficking can also be organised by individuals and the children’s own families. Traffickers trick, force or persuade children to leave their homes. They use grooming techniques to gain the trust of a child, family or community. Although these are methods used by traffickers, coercion, violence or threats don’t need to be proven in cases of child trafficking – a child cannot legally consent to their exploitation, so child trafficking only requires evidence of movement and exploitation. Modern slavery is another term which may be used in relation to child trafficking.

Modern slavery encompasses slavery, servitude, forced and compulsory labour and human trafficking (HM Government, 2014). The Modern Slavery Act passed in 2015 in England and Wales categorises offences of slavery, servitude, forced or compulsory labour and human trafficking (NCA, 2017).

Spotting the signs of child trafficking

Signs that a child has been trafficked may not be obvious, but you might notice unusual behaviour or events. These include a child who:

  • Spends a lot of time doing household chores
  • Rarely leaves their house, has no freedom of movement and no time for playing
  • Is orphaned or living apart from their family, often in unregulated private foster care
  • Lives in substandard accommodation • isn’t sure which country, city or town they’re in
  • Is unable or reluctant to give details of accommodation or personal details
  • Might not be registered with a school or a GP practice
  • Has no documents or has falsified documents
  • Has no access to their parents or guardians
  • Is seen in inappropriate places such as brothels or factories
  • Possesses unaccounted for money or goods
  • Is permanently deprived of a large part of their earnings, required to earn a minimum amount of money every day or pay off an exorbitant debt
  • Has injuries from workplace accidents
  • Gives a prepared story which is very similar to stories given by other children

There are also signs that an adult is involved in child trafficking, such as:

  • Making multiple visa applications for different children
  • Acting as a guarantor for multiple visa applications for children
  • Travelling with different children who they’re not related to or responsible for
  • Insisting on remaining with and speaking for the child
  • Living with unrelated or newly arrived children
  • Abandoning a child or claiming not to know a child they were previously with

Female genital mutilation

Female genital mutilation (FGM) is the partial or total removal of external female genitalia for non-medical reasons. It’s also known as female circumcision or cutting.

The age at which FGM is carried out varies. It may be carried out when a girl is new-born, during childhood or adolescence, just before marriage or during pregnancy (Home Office et al, 2016).

Religious, social or cultural reasons are sometimes given for FGM. However, FGM is child abuse. It’s dangerous and a criminal offence.

There are no medical reasons to carry out FGM. It doesn’t enhance fertility and it doesn’t make childbirth safer. It’s used to control female sexuality and can cause severe and long-lasting damage to physical and emotional health.

Spotting the signs of female genital mutilation

A girl at immediate risk of FGM may not know what’s going to happen. But she might talk about or you may become aware of:

  • A long holiday abroad or going ‘home’ to visit family
  • Relative or cutter visiting from abroad
  • A special occasion or ceremony to ‘become a woman’ or get ready for marriage
  • A female relative being cut – a sister, cousin or an older female relative such as a mother or aunt
  • Missing school repeatedly or running away from home

A girl who has had FGM may:

  • Have difficulty walking, standing or sitting
  • Spend longer in the bathroom or toilet
  • Appear withdrawn, anxious or depressed
  • Have unusual behaviour after an absence from school or college
  • Be particularly reluctant to undergo normal medical examinations
  • Ask for help, but may not be explicit about the problem due to embarrassment

Reporting requirements

Regulated health and social care professionals and teachers in England and Wales must report ‘known’ cases of FGM in under-18s to the police (Home Office, 2016)

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